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Peer-reviewed journal articles by Met Éireann staff members

Peer-reviewed academic journal articles by Met Éireann staff members, arranged chronologically. Links to full text are given, where available.


Bengtsson, Lisa, Ulf Andrae, Trygve Aspelien, Yurii Batrak, Javier Calvo, Wim de Rooy, Emily Gleeson, et al. “The HARMONIE-AROME Model Configuration in the ALADIN-HIRLAM NWP System.” Monthly Weather Review (February 9, 2017): MWR–D–16–0417.1. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-16-0417.1. (Full Text)

Dias, F., Renzi, E., Gallagher, S. et al. “Analytical and computational modelling for wave energy systems: the example of oscillating wave surge converters.” Acta Mechanica Sinica (2017):1-16. doi:

Gleeson, E., Whelan, E., and Hanley, J.: “Met Éireann high resolution reanalysis for Ireland”, Adv. Sci. Res., 14, 49-61,, 2017.

Gleeson, EmilySarah GallagherColm Clancy, and Frédéric Dias. “NAO and Extreme Ocean States in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean.” Advances in Science and Research 14 (February 10, 2017): 23–33. doi:10.5194/asr-14-23-2017. (Full Text)

J. Brennan, C. Clancy, J. Harrington, R. Cox, F. Dias, ‘Analysis of the pressure at a vertical barrier due to extreme wave run-up over variable bathymetry’, Elsevier, on behalf of The Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 2017-11-22, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters, 7, 5, 2017 (Full Text)

Laura O’Brien, Emiliano Renzi, John M. Dudley, Colm Clancy, Frédéric Dias, ‘Extreme wave events in Ireland: 2012 – 2016’, Copernicus Publications, 2017, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS), 2017 (Full Text)

McDonnell, J., Lambkin, K., Fealy, R., Hennessy, D., Shalloo, L. and Brophy, C. (2017), Verification and bias correction of ECMWF forecasts for Irish weather stations to evaluate their potential usefulness in grass growth modelling. Met. Apps. doi:10.1002/met.1691

Mottram, R., Nielsen, K. P., Gleeson, E., and Yang, X.: Modelling Glaciers in the HARMONIE-AROME NWP model, Adv. Sci. Res., 14, 323-334,, 2017.(Full Text)

Rontu, L.,  Gleeson, E.,  Räisänen, P.,  Pagh Nielsen,  K., Savijärvi, H., and Hansen Sass, B.: “The HIRLAM fast radiation scheme for mesoscale numerical weather prediction models”, Adv. Sci. Res., 14, 195-215,, 2017.


Clancy, Colm, John O’Sullivan, Conor Sweeney, Frédéric Dias, and Andrew C. Parnell. “Spatial Bayesian Hierarchical Modelling of Extreme Sea States.” Ocean Modelling 107 (2016): 1–13. doi: (Full Text)

Gallagher, S., E. Gleeson, R. Tiron, R. McGrath, and F. Dias. “Twenty-First Century Wave Climate Projections for Ireland and Surface Winds in the North Atlantic Ocean.” Advances in Science and Research 13 (2016): 75–80. doi:10.5194/asr-13-75-2016. (Full Text)

Gallagher, S., E. Gleeson, R. Tiron, R. McGrath, and F. Dias. “Wave Climate Projections for Ireland for the End of the 21st Century Including Analysis of EC-Earth Winds over the North Atlantic Ocean.” International Journal of Climatology Early View (2016). doi:10.1002/joc.4656.

Gallagher, S., R. Tiron, E. Whelan, E. Gleeson, F. Dias, and R. McGrath. “The Nearshore Wind and Wave Energy Potential of Ireland: A High Resolution Assessment of Availability and Accessibility.” Renewable Energy 88 (2016): 494–516. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2015.11.010. (Full Text)

Gleeson, E., V. Toll, K.P. Nielsen, L. Rontu, and J Masek. “Effects of Aerosols on Clear-Sky Solar Radiation in the ALADIN-HIRLAM NWP System.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16 (2016): 5933–5948. doi:10.5194/acp-16-5933-2016.(Full Text)

Lynch, P., and C. Clancy. “Improving the Laplace Transform Integration Method.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 142, no. 695 (2016): 1196–1200. doi:10.1002/qj.2670.

McCarthy, Mark, S. Spillane, S. Walsh, and M. Kendon. “The Meteorology of the Exceptional Winter of 2015/2016 across the UK and Ireland.” Weather 71, no. 12 (2016): 305–313. doi:10.1002/wea.2823. (Full Text)

Nuissier, O., C. Marsigli, D. Vincendon, A. Hally, F. Bouttier, A. Montani, and T. Paccagnella. “Evaluation of Two Convection-Permitting Ensemble Systems in the HyMeX Special Observation Period (SOP1) Framework.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society (2016). doi:10.1002/qj.2885.

Toll, V., E. Gleeson, K.P. Nielsen, A. Männik, J. Mašek, L. Rontu, and P. Post. “Impacts of the Direct Radiative Effect of Aerosols in Numerical Weather Prediction over Europe Using the ALADIN-HIRLAM NWP System.” Atmospheric Research 172–173 (2016): 163–173. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.01.003. (Full Text)


Hally, A., O. Caumont, L. Garrote, E. Richard, A. Weerts, F. Delogu, E. Fiori, et al. “Hydrometeorological Multi-Model Ensemble Simulations of the 4 November 2011 Flash Flood Event in Genoa, Italy, in the Framework of the DRIHM Project.” Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 15 (2015): 537–555. doi:10.5194/nhess-15-537-2015. (Full Text)

McCarthy, G., E. Gleeson, and S. Walsh. “The Influence of Ocean Variations on the Climate of Ireland.” Weather 70, no. 8 (2015): 242–245. doi: 10.1002/wea.2543. (Full Text)

Noone, S., C. Murphy, J. Coll, T. Matthews, D. Mullan, R.L. Wilby, and S. Walsh. “Homogenization and Analysis of an Expanded Long-Term Monthly Rainfall Network for the Island of Ireland (1850–2010).” International Journal of Climatology Early View (2015). doi: 10.1002/joc.4522.

O’Sullivan, J., C. Sweeney, P. Nolan, and E. Gleeson. “A High-Resolution, Multi-Model Analysis of Irish Temperatures for the Mid-21st Century.” International Journal of Climatology (2015). doi:10.1002/joc.4419.

Tighe, T. “A Case Study of High Sea Salt Aerosol (SSA) Concentrations as a Hazard to Aviation.” Meteorological Applications 22, no. 4 (2015): 806–810. doi: 10.1002/met.1529 (Full Text)


Caffarra, A., F. Zottele, E. Gleeson, and A. Donnelly. “Spatial Heterogeneity in the Timing of Birch Budburst in Response to Future Climate Warming in Ireland.” International Journal of Biometeorology 58, no. 4 (September 15, 2014): 509–19. doi: 10.1007/s00484-013-0720-5   (Full Text)

Gallagher, S., R. Tiron, and F. Dias. “A Long-Term Nearshore Wave Hindcast for Ireland: Atlantic and Irish Sea Coasts (1979–2012).” Ocean Dynamics 64, no. 8 (June 28, 2014): 1163–1180. doi: 10.1007/s10236-014-0728-3 (Full Text)

Hally, A., E. Richard, and V Ducrocq. “An Ensemble Study of HyMeX IOP6 and IOP7a: Sensitivity to Physical and Initial and Boundary Condition Uncertainties.” Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 14 (2014): 1071–1084. doi:10.5194/nhess-14-1071-2014. (Full Text)

Hally, A., E. Richard, S. Fresnay, and D. Lambert. “Ensemble Simulations with Perturbed Physical Parametrizations: Pre-HyMeX Case Studies.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 140 (2014): 1900–1916. doi:10.1002/qj.2257.

Nielsen, K.P., E. Gleeson, L. Rontu “Radiation Sensitivity Tests of the HARMONIE 37h1 NWP Model.” Geoscientific Model Development 7 (2014): 1433–1449. doi: 10.5194/gmd-7-1433-2014 (Full Text)

Schmith, T., S. Yang, E. Gleeson, and T. Semmler. “How Much Have Variations in the Meridional Overturning Circulation Contributed to Sea Surface Temperature Trends since 1850? A Study with the EC-Earth Global Climate Model.” Journal of Climate 27, no. 16 (August 7, 2014): 6343–6357. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00651.1 (Full Text)


Clancy, C., and J. A. Pudykiewicz. “A Class of Semi-Implicit Predictor–corrector Schemes for the Time Integration of Atmospheric Models.” Journal of Computational Physics 250 (2013): 665–684. doi:10.1016/

Clancy, C., and J. A. Pudykiewicz.  “On the Use of Exponential Time Integration Methods in Atmospheric Models.” Tellus A 65 (2013): 20898. doi:10.3402/tellusa.v65i0.20898.

Drijfhout, S. S., E. Gleeson, H. A. Dijkstra, and A. Livina. “A Spontaneous, Abrupt Climate Change Event in the EC-Earth Climate Model.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 49 (May 15, 2013): 19713–19718. doi:10.1073/pnas.1304912110.

Gleeson, E., A. Donnelly, R. McGrath, A. ní Bhroin, B. F. O’Neill, and T. Semmler. “Assessing the Influence of a Range of Spring Meteorological Parameters on Tree Phenology.” Biology & Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 113, no. 1 (2013): 1–10. doi:10.3318/BIOE.2013.06.

Nielsen, K.P., E. Gleeson, and L. Rontu. “Radiation Sensitivity Tests of the HARMONIE 37h1 NWP Model.” Geoscientific Model Development Discussions 6 (2013): 6775–6834. doi:10.5194/gmdd-6-6775-2013.

Regan, E., E. Gleeson. “The Painted Lady (Vanessa Cardui L., 1758) Migration of 2009 as Recorded by the Irish Butterfly Monitoring Scheme and an Investigation into the Origin of the Migration.” Irish Naturalists Journal 32, no. 2 (2013): 108–113.

Tripathi, Om P., S. G. Jennings, C. D. O’Dowd, K. P. Lambkin, and E. Moran. “Measurements of Stratospheric Ozone at a Mid-Latitude Observing Station Valentia, Ireland (51.94° N, 10.25° W), Using Ground-Based and Ozonesonde Observations from 1994 to 2009.” Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 70, no. 4 (October 25, 2013): 297–316. doi:10.1007/s10874-013-9274-5. (Full Text)


Fresnay, S., A. Hally, C. Garnaud, E. Richard, and D. Lambert. “Heavy Precipitation Events in the Mediterranean: Sensitivity to Cloud Physics Parameterisation Uncertainties.” Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 12 (2012): 2671–2688. doi:10.5194/nhess-12-2671-2012. (Full Text)

Nolan, P., P. Lynch, R. McGrath, T. Semmler, and S. Wang. “Simulating Climate Change and Its Effects on the Wind Energy Resource of Ireland.” Wind Energy 15, no. 4 (May 1, 2012): 593–608. doi:10.1002/we.489.

O’Dowd, C., D. Ceburnis, J. Ovadnevaite, G. Martucci, J. Bialek, C. Monahan, H. Berresheim, A. Vaishya, T. Grigas, S.G. Jennings, P. McVeigh, S. Varghese, R. Flanagan, D. Martin, E. Moran, K. Lambkin, T. Semmler, C. Perrino, R. McGrath. “The Eyjafjallajökull Ash Plume – Part I: Physical, Chemical and Optical Characteristics.” Atmospheric Environment 48 (March 2012): 129–142. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.07.004 (Full Text)

O’Dowd, C., S. Varghese, D. Martin, R. Flanagan, A. McKinstry, D. Ceburnis, J. Ovadnevaite, G. Martucci, J. Bialek, C. Monahan, H. Berresheim, A. Vaishya, T. Grigas, Z. McGraw, S.G. Jennings, B. Langmann, T. Semmler, R. McGrath. “The Eyjafjallajökull Ash Plume – Part 2: Simulating Ash Cloud Dispersion with REMOTE.” Atmospheric Environment 48 (2012): 143–151. 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.037 

Semmler, T., B.Cheng, Y. Yang, and L. Rontu. “Snow and Ice on Bear Lake (Alaska) – Sensitivity Experiments with Two Lake Ice Models.” Tellus A 64 (March 13, 2012). doi:10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.17339

Semmler, T., R. McGrath, and S. Wang. “The Impact of Arctic Sea Ice on the Arctic Energy Budget and on the Climate of the Northern Mid-Latitudes.” Climate Dynamics 39, no. 11 (April 15, 2012): 2675–2694. doi: 10.1007/s00382-012-1353-9.

Sterl, A., R. Bintanja, L. Brodeau, E. Gleeson, T. Koenigk, T. Schmith, T. Semmler, C. Severijns, K. Wyser, and S. Yang. “A Look at the Ocean in the EC-Earth Climate Model.” Climate Dynamics 39, no. 11 (2012): 2631–2657. doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1239-2.

Tripathi, Om P., S. G. Jennings, C. O’Dowd, B. O’Leary, K. Lambkin, E. Moran, S. J. O’Doherty, and T. Gerard Spain. “An Assessment of the Surface Ozone Trend in Ireland Relevant to Air Pollution and Environmental Protection.” Atmospheric Pollution Research. Turkish National Committee for Air Pollution Research and Control, May 17, 2012. doi:10.5094/APR.2012.038.


Clancy, C., and P. Lynch. “Laplace Transform Integration of the Shallow-Water Equations. Part I: Eulerian Formulation and Kelvin Waves.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 137, no. 656 (2011): 792–799. doi:10.1002/qj.793.

Clancy, C., and P. Lynch., “Laplace Transform Integration of the Shallow-Water Equations. Part II: Semi-Lagrangian Formulation and Orographic Resonance.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 137, no. 656 (2011): 800–809. doi:10.1002/qj.805.

Hanafin, J., R. McGrath, T. Semmler, S. Wang, P. Lynch, S. Steele-Dunne, and P. Nolan. “Air Flow and Stability Indices in GCM Future and Control Runs.” International Journal of Climatology 31, no. 8 (June 30, 2011): 1240–1247. doi:10.1002/joc.2125.

Hazeleger, W., X. Wang, C. Severijns, S. ?tef?nescu, R. Bintanja, A. Sterl, K. Wyser, T. Semmler, S. Yang, B. van den Hurk, T. van Noije, E. van der Linden, K. van der Wiel. “EC-Earth V2.2: Description and Validation of a New Seamless Earth System Prediction Model.” Climate Dynamics 39, no. 11 (December 7, 2011): 2611–2629. doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1228-5.

Sterl, A., R. Bintanja, L. Brodeau, E. Gleeson, T. Koenigk, T.Schmith, T. Semmler, C. Severijns, K. Wyser, and S. Yang. “A Look at the Ocean in the EC-Earth Climate Model.” Climate Dynamics 39, no. 11 (November 13, 2011): 2631–2657. doi:10.1007/s00382-011-1239-2.


Blanchi, R., C.Lucas, J. Leonard, and K. Finkele. “Meteorological Conditions and Wildfire-Related Houseloss in Australia.” International Journal of Wildland Fire 19, no. 7 (2010): 914. doi: 10.1071/WF08175.

Hazeleger, W., C.Severijns, T. Semmler, S. ?tef?nescu, S.Yang, X. Wang, K. Wyser, et al. “EC-Earth: A Seamless Earth-System Prediction Approach in Action.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 91, no. 10 (October 1, 2010): 1357–1363. doi:10.1175/2010BAMS2877.1.


Dowdy, A. J, G. A Mills, K. Finkele, and W. de Groot. “Index Sensitivity Analysis Applied to the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index and the McArthur Forest Fire Danger Index.” Meteorological Applications 17, no. 3 (2009): 298–312. doi: 10.1002/met.170.

Keim, C., M. Eremenko, J. Orphal, G. Dufour, J.-M. Flau, M. Höpfner, A. Boynard, C. Clerbaux, S. Payan, P.-F. Coheur, D. Hurtmans, H.Claude, H. Dier, B. Johnson, H. Kelder, R. Kivi, T. Koide, M. López Bartolomé, K. Lambkin, D. Moore, F.J. Schmidlin, R. Stübi. “Tropospheric Ozone from IASI: Comparison of Different Inversion Algorithms and Validation with Ozone Sondes in the Northern Middle Latitudes.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, no. 24 (December 15, 2009): 9329–9347. doi:10.5194/acp-9-9329-2009.

Semmler, T., R. McGrath, S. Steele-Dunne, J. Hanafin, P. Nolan, and S. Wang. “Influence of Climate Change on Heating and Cooling Energy Demand in Ireland.” International Journal of Climatology 30, no. 10 (2009): 1502–1511. doi:10.1002/joc.1997.


Semmler, T., S. Varghese, R. McGrath, P. Nolan, S. Wang, P. Lynch, and C. O’Dowd. “Regional Climate Model Simulations of North Atlantic Cyclones: Frequency and Intensity Changes.” Climate Research 36 (March 13, 2008): 1–16. doi:10.3354/cr00732.

Semmler, T. “Regional Model Simulation of North Atlantic Cyclones: Present Climate and Idealized Response to Increased Sea Surface Temperature.” Journal of Geophysical Research 113, no. D2 (January 22, 2008): D02107. doi:10.1029/2006JD008213.

Steele-Dunne, S., P. Lynch, R. McGrath, T. Semmler, S. Wang, J. Hanafin, and P.Nolan. “The Impacts of Climate Change on Hydrology in Ireland.” Journal of Hydrology 356, no. 1 (2008): 28–45. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.03.025.

Wang, S., R. McGrath, J.Hanafin, P. Lynch, T. Semmler, and Paul Nolan. “The Impact of Climate Change on Storm Surges over Irish Waters.” Ocean Modelling 25, no. 1 (2008): 83–94. doi:10.1016/j.ocemod.2008.06.009.


Finkele, K., A. J. Mills, G. Beard, and D. A. Jones. “National Gridded Drought Factors and Comparison of Two Soil Moisture Deficit Formulations Used in Prediction of Forest Fire Danger Index in Australia.” Australian Meteorological Magazine 55, no. 3 (2006): 183–197.

Wang, S., R. McGrath, T. Semmler, and C. Sweeney. “Validation of Simulated Precipitation Patterns over Ireland for the Period 1961–2000.” International Journal of Climatology 26, no. 2 (February 2006): 251–266. doi:10.1002/joc.1246.

Wang, S., R. McGrath, T. Semmler, C. Sweeney, and P. Nolan. “The Impact of the Climate Change on Discharge of Suir River Catchment (Ireland) under Different Climate Scenarios.” Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 6, no. 3 (May 22, 2006): 387–395. doi:10.5194/nhess-6-387-2006.


Schulte, R.P.O., J. Diamond, and K. Finkele. “Predicting the Soil Moisture Conditions of Irish Grasslands.” Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 44, no. 1 (2005): 95–110.

Semmler, T., D. Jacob, K. H. Schlünzen, and R. Podzum. “The Water and Energy Budget of the Arctic Atmosphere.” Journal of Climate 18, no. 13 (2005): 2515–2530. doi:10.1175/JCLI3414.1.

Stevens, B., C.-H. Moeng, A. S. Ackerman, C. S. Bretherton, A. Chlond, S. de Roode, J. Edwards, J.-C. Golaz, H. Jiang, M. Khairoutdinov, M.P. Kirkpatrick, D.C. Lewellen, A. Lock., F. Muller, D.E. Stevens, E. Whelan, P. Zhu  “Evaluation of Large-Eddy Simulations via Observations of Nocturnal Marine Stratocumulus.” Monthly Weather Review 133, no. 6 (June 25, 2005): 1443–1462. doi:10.1175/MWR2930.1.


Cushman, R., H. Dullin, A. Giacobbe, D. D. Holm, M. Joyeux, P. Lynch, D. Sadovskií, and B. I. Zhilinskií. “CO2 Molecule as a Quantum Realization of the 1:1:2 Resonant Swing-Spring with Monodromy.” Physical Review Letters 93, no. 2 (July 1, 2004): 024302. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.024302.

Leamon, R.J., R.C. Canfield, S.L. Jones, K. Lambkin, B.J. Lundberg, A.A. Pevtsov. “Helicity of Magnetic Clouds and Their Associated Active Regions.” Journal of Geophysical Research 109, no. A5 (2004): A05106. doi:10.1029/2003JA010324.

Lynch, P. “A Century of Numerical Weather Prediction: The View from Limerick.” Weather 59, no. 12 (December 1, 2004): 331–331. doi:10.1256/wea.142.04.

Lynch, P., and Conor Houghton. “Pulsation and Precession of the Resonant Swinging Spring.” Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena 190, no. 1 (2004): 38–62. doi:10.1016/j.physd.2003.09.043.


Finkele, K, Katzfey, J.J., Kowalczyk, and E.A. Kowalczyk, J.L. McGregor, L. Zhang, M. R. Raupach. “Modelling of the OASIS Energy Flux Measurements Using Two Canopy Concepts.” Boundary-Layer Meteorology 107, no. 1 (2003): 49–79. doi: 10.1023/A:1021544607688.

Lopez, P., K. Finkele, P. Clark, and P. Mascart. “Validation and Intercomparison of Three Mesoscale Models on Three FASTEX Cloud Systems: Comparison with Coarse-Resolution Simulations.” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 129, no. 591 (April 16, 2003): 1841–1871. doi:10.1256/qj.01.113.

Lynch, P. “Margules’s Tendency Equation and Richardson’s Forecast.” Weather 58, no. 5 (May 1, 2003): 186–193. doi:10.1256/wea.146.02.

Lynch, P. “On the Significance of the Titius-Bode Law for the Distribution of the Planets.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 341, no. 4 (2003): 1174–1178. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07760.x.

Lynch, P. “Resonant Rossby Wave Triads and the Swinging Spring.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 84, no. 5 (2003): 605–616. doi:10.1175/BAMS-84-5-605.

Lynch, P. “Richardson Extrapolation: The Power of the 2-Gon.” Mathematics Today 39, no. 5 (2003): 159–160.


Fitzgerald, D. L. “Tricomi and Kummer Functions in Occurrence, Waiting Time and Exceedance Statistics.” Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment (SERRA) 16, no. 3 (July 1, 2002): 207–224. doi:10.1007/s00477-002-0095-3.

Holm, D. D., and P. Lynch. “Stepwise Precession of the Resonant Swinging Spring.” SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems 1, no. 1 (2002): 44–64. doi:10.1137/S1111111101388571.

McDonald, A. “A Step toward Transparent Boundary Conditions for Meteorological Models.” Monthly Weather Review 130, no. 1 (January 25, 2002): 140–151. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2002)130<0140:ASTTBC>2.0.CO;2.


Lynch, P. “Resonant Motions of the Three-Dimensional Elastic Pendulum.” International Journal of Nonlinear Mechanics 37, no. 2 (2001): 345–367. doi:10.1016/S0020-7462(00)00121-9.


Fitzgerald, D. L. “Statistical Aspects of Tricomi’s Function and Modified Bessel Functions of the Second Kind.” Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 14, no. 2 (June 2000): 139–158. doi:10.1007/PL00009777.

McDonald, A. “Boundary Conditions for Semi-Lagrangian Schemes: Testing Some Alternatives in One-Dimensional Models.” Monthly Weather Review 128, no. 12 (December 25, 2000): 4084–4096. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(2000)129<4084:BCFSLS>2.0.CO;2.


McDonald, A. “An Examination of Alternative Extrapolations to Find the Departure Point Position in a ‘two-Time-Level’ Semi-Lagrangian Integration.” Monthly Weather Review 127, no. 9 (September 1999): 1985–1993. doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1999)127<1985:AEOAET>2.0.CO;2.

Finkele, K. “Inland and Offshore Propagation Speeds of a Sea Breeze from Simulations and Measurements.” Boundary-Layer Meteorology 87, no. 2 (May 1, 1998): 307–329. doi:10.1023/A:1001083913327.

Joly, A., D. Jorgensen, M. A. Shapiro, A. Thorpe, P. Bessemoulin, K. A. Browning, J-P Cammas, S. A. Clough, K. A. Emanuel, L. Eymard, R. Gall, P.H. Hildebrand, R.H. Langland, Y. Lemaitre, P. Lynch, J. A. Moore, P. Ola G. Persson, C. Snyder, R. M. Wakimoto. “The Fronts and Atlantic Storm-Track Experiment (FASTEX): Scientific Objectives and Experimental Design.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 78, no. 9 (September 12, 1997): 1917–1940. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<1917:TFAAST>2.0.CO;2.

Lynch, P., D. Giard, and V. Ivanovici. “Improving the Efficiency of a Digital Filtering Scheme for Diabatic Initialization.” Monthly Weather Review 125, no. 8 (August 25, 1997): 1976–1982. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<1976:ITEOAD>2.0.CO;2.

Lynch, P. “The Dolph–Chebyshev Window: A Simple Optimal Filter.” Monthly Weather Review 125, no. 4 (April 25, 1997): 655–660. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<0655:TDCWAS>2.0.CO;2.

Fitzgerald, D. L. “Maximum Product of Spacings Estimators for the Generalized Pareto and Log-Logistic Distributions.” Stochastic Hydrology and Hydraulics 10, no. 1 (February 1996): 1–15. doi:10.1007/BF01581791.

Finkele, K., J. M. Hacker, H. Kraus, and R.A. D. Byron-Scott. “A Complete Sea-Breeze Circulation Cell Derived from Aircraft Observations.” Boundary-Layer Meteorology 73, no. 3 (1995): 299–317. doi:10.1007/BF00711261.

Lynch, P. “Richardson’s Forecast-Factory: The $64,000 Question.” The Meteorological Magazine 122 (1993): 69–70.

Lynch, P., and X-Yu Huang. “Initialization of the HIRLAM Model Using a Digital Filter.” Monthly Weather Review 120, no. 6 (June 21, 1992): 1019–1034. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1992)120<1019:IOTHMU>2.0.CO;2.

Lynch, P. “Richardson’s Barotropic Forecast: A Reappraisal.” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 73, no. 1 (January 12, 1992): 35–47. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1992)073<0035:RBFAR>2.0.CO;2.

Lynch, P. “Filtering Integration Schemes Based on the Laplace and Z Transforms.” Monthly Weather Review 119, no. 3 (March 21, 1991): 653–666. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1991)119<0653:FISBOT>2.0.CO;2.


Shields, L., and D. Fitzgerald. “The ‘Night of the Big Wind’ in Ireland, 6–7 January 1839.” Irish Geography 22, no. 1 (January 1989): 31–43. doi: 10.1080/00750778909478784. (Full Text)

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